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systemctl 命令完全指南

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Systemctl是一个systemd工具,主要负责控制systemd系统和服务管理器。

Systemd是一个系统管理守护进程、工具和库的集合,用于取代System V初始进程。Systemd的功能是用于集中管理和配置类UNIX系统。

在Linux生态系统中,Systemd被部署到了大多数的标准Linux发行版中,只有为数不多的几个发行版尚未部署。Systemd通常是所有其它守护进程的父进程,但并非总是如此。

使用Systemctl管理Linux服务

使用Systemctl管理Linux服务

本文旨在阐明在运行systemd的系统上“如何控制系统和服务”。

Systemd初体验和Systemctl基础

1. 首先检查你的系统中是否安装有systemd并确定当前安装的版本

  1. # systemctl --version


  2. systemd 215

  3. +PAM +AUDIT +SELINUX +IMA +SYSVINIT +LIBCRYPTSETUP +GCRYPT +ACL +XZ -SECCOMP -APPARMOR

上例中很清楚地表明,我们安装了215版本的systemd。

2. 检查systemd和systemctl的二进制文件和库文件的安装位置

  1. # whereis systemd

  2. systemd: /usr/lib/systemd /etc/systemd /usr/share/systemd /usr/share/man/man1/systemd.1.gz



  3. # whereis systemctl

  4. systemctl: /usr/bin/systemctl /usr/share/man/man1/systemctl.1.gz

3. 检查systemd是否运行

  1. # ps -eaf | grep [s]ystemd


  2. root         1     0  0 16:27 ?        00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --switched-root --system --deserialize 23

  3. root       444     1  0 16:27 ?        00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-journald

  4. root       469     1  0 16:27 ?        00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-udevd

  5. root       555     1  0 16:27 ?        00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-logind

  6. dbus       556     1  0 16:27 ?        00:00:00 /bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --nopidfile --systemd-activation

注意:systemd是作为父进程(PID=1)运行的。在上面带(-e)参数的ps命令输出中,选择所有进程,(-a)选择除会话前导外的所有进程,并使用(-f)参数输出完整格式列表(即 -eaf)。

也请注意上例中后随的方括号和例子中剩余部分。方括号表达式是grep的字符类表达式的一部分。

4. 分析systemd启动进程

# systemd-analyzeStartup finished in 487ms (kernel) + 2.776s (initrd) + 20.229s (userspace) = 23.493s

5. 分析启动时各个进程花费的时间

  1. # systemd-analyze blame


  2. 8.565s mariadb.service

  3. 7.991s webmin.service

  4. 6.095s postfix.service

  5. 4.311s httpd.service

  6. 3.926s firewalld.service

  7. 3.780s kdump.service

  8. 3.238s tuned.service

  9. 1.712s network.service

  10. 1.394s lvm2-monitor.service

  11. 1.126s systemd-logind.service

  12. ....

6. 分析启动时的关键链

  1. # systemd-analyze critical-chain


  2. The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.

  3. The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character.


  4. multi-user.target @20.222s

  5. └─mariadb.service @11.657s +8.565s

  6.  └─network.target @11.168s

  7.    └─network.service @9.456s +1.712s

  8.      └─NetworkManager.service @8.858s +596ms

  9.        └─firewalld.service @4.931s +3.926s

  10.          └─basic.target @4.916s

  11.            └─sockets.target @4.916s

  12.              └─dbus.socket @4.916s

  13.                └─sysinit.target @4.905s

  14.                  └─systemd-update-utmp.service @4.864s +39ms

  15.                    └─auditd.service @4.563s +301ms

  16.                      └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service @4.485s +69ms

  17.                        └─rhel-import-state.service @4.342s +142ms

  18.                          └─local-fs.target @4.324s

  19.                            └─boot.mount @4.286s +31ms

  20.                              └─systemd-fsck@dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d19608096

  21.                                └─dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d196080964.device @4

重要:Systemctl接受服务(.service),挂载点(.mount),套接口(.socket)和设备(.device)作为单元。

7. 列出所有可用单元

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files


  2. UNIT FILE                                   STATE  

  3. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount           static  

  4. dev-hugepages.mount                         static  

  5. dev-mqueue.mount                            static  

  6. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.mount               static  

  7. sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount               static  

  8. sys-kernel-config.mount                     static  

  9. sys-kernel-debug.mount                      static  

  10. tmp.mount                                   disabled

  11. brandbot.path                               disabled

  12. .....

8. 列出所有运行中单元

  1. # systemctl list-units


  2. UNIT                                        LOAD   ACTIVE SUB       DESCRIPTION

  3. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount           loaded active waiting   Arbitrary Executable File Formats File Syste

  4. sys-devices-pc...0-1:0:0:0-block-sr0.device loaded active plugged   VBOX_CD-ROM

  5. sys-devices-pc...:00:03.0-net-enp0s3.device loaded active plugged   PRO/1000 MT Desktop Adapter

  6. sys-devices-pc...00:05.0-sound-card0.device loaded active plugged   82801AA AC'97 Audio Controller

  7. sys-devices-pc...:0:0-block-sda-sda1.device loaded active plugged   VBOX_HARDDISK

  8. sys-devices-pc...:0:0-block-sda-sda2.device loaded active plugged   LVM PV Qzyo3l-qYaL-uRUa-Cjuk-pljo-qKtX-VgBQ8

  9. sys-devices-pc...0-2:0:0:0-block-sda.device loaded active plugged   VBOX_HARDDISK

  10. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS0.device loaded active plugged   /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS0

  11. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS1.device loaded active plugged   /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS1

  12. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS2.device loaded active plugged   /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS2

  13. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS3.device loaded active plugged   /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS3

  14. sys-devices-virtual-block-dm\x2d0.device    loaded active plugged   /sys/devices/virtual/block/dm-0

  15. sys-devices-virtual-block-dm\x2d1.device    loaded active plugged   /sys/devices/virtual/block/dm-1

  16. sys-module-configfs.device                  loaded active plugged   /sys/module/configfs

  17. ...

9. 列出所有失败单元

  1. # systemctl --failed


  2. UNIT          LOAD   ACTIVE SUB    DESCRIPTION

  3. kdump.service loaded failed failed Crash recovery kernel arming


  4. LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.

  5. ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.

  6. SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.


  7. 1 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.

  8. To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.

10. 检查某个单元(如 cron.service)是否启用

  1. # systemctl is-enabled crond.service


  2. enabled

11. 检查某个单元或服务是否运行

  1. # systemctl status firewalld.service


  2. firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon

  3.   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; enabled)

  4.   Active: active (running) since Tue 2015-04-28 16:27:55 IST; 34min ago

  5. Main PID: 549 (firewalld)

  6.   CGroup: /system.slice/firewalld.service

  7.           └─549 /usr/bin/python -Es /usr/sbin/firewalld --nofork --nopid


  8. Apr 28 16:27:51 tecmint systemd[1]: Starting firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon...

  9. Apr 28 16:27:55 tecmint systemd[1]: Started firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon.

使用Systemctl控制并管理服务

12. 列出所有服务(包括启用的和禁用的)

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files --type=service


  2. UNIT FILE                                   STATE  

  3. arp-ethers.service                          disabled

  4. auditd.service                              enabled

  5. autovt@.service                             disabled

  6. blk-availability.service                    disabled

  7. brandbot.service                            static  

  8. collectd.service                            disabled

  9. console-getty.service                       disabled

  10. console-shell.service                       disabled

  11. cpupower.service                            disabled

  12. crond.service                               enabled

  13. dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service   enabled

  14. ....

13. Linux中如何启动、重启、停止、重载服务以及检查服务(如 httpd.service)状态

  1. # systemctl start httpd.service

  2. # systemctl restart httpd.service

  3. # systemctl stop httpd.service

  4. # systemctl reload httpd.service

  5. # systemctl status httpd.service


  6. httpd.service - The Apache HTTP Server

  7.   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service; enabled)

  8.   Active: active (running) since Tue 2015-04-28 17:21:30 IST; 6s ago

  9.  Process: 2876 ExecStop=/bin/kill -WINCH ${MAINPID} (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

  10. Main PID: 2881 (httpd)

  11.   Status: "Processing requests..."

  12.   CGroup: /system.slice/httpd.service

  13.           ├─2881 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  14.           ├─2884 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  15.           ├─2885 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  16.           ├─2886 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  17.           ├─2887 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  18.           └─2888 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND


  19. Apr 28 17:21:30 tecmint systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server...

  20. Apr 28 17:21:30 tecmint httpd[2881]: AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully q...ssage

  21. Apr 28 17:21:30 tecmint systemd[1]: Started The Apache HTTP Server.

  22. Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

注意:当我们使用systemctl的start,restart,stop和reload命令时,我们不会从终端获取到任何输出内容,只有status命令可以打印输出。

14. 如何激活服务并在启动时启用或禁用服务(即系统启动时自动启动服务)

# systemctl is-active httpd.service# systemctl enable httpd.service# systemctl disable httpd.service

15. 如何屏蔽(让它不能启动)或显示服务(如 httpd.service)

  1. # systemctl mask httpd.service

  2. ln -s '/dev/null' '/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service'


  3. # systemctl unmask httpd.service

  4. rm '/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service'

16. 使用systemctl命令杀死服务

  1. # systemctl kill httpd

  2. # systemctl status httpd


  3. httpd.service - The Apache HTTP Server

  4.   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service; enabled)

  5.   Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Tue 2015-04-28 18:01:42 IST; 28min ago

  6. Main PID: 2881 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

  7.   Status: "Total requests: 0; Current requests/sec: 0; Current traffic:   0 B/sec"


  8. Apr 28 17:37:29 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  9. Apr 28 17:37:29 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  10. Apr 28 17:37:39 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  11. Apr 28 17:37:39 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  12. Apr 28 17:37:49 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  13. Apr 28 17:37:49 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  14. Apr 28 17:37:59 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  15. Apr 28 17:37:59 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.

  16. Apr 28 18:01:42 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: control process exited, code=exited status=226

  17. Apr 28 18:01:42 tecmint systemd[1]: Unit httpd.service entered failed state.

  18. Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

使用Systemctl控制并管理挂载点

17. 列出所有系统挂载点

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files --type=mount


  2. UNIT FILE                     STATE  

  3. dev-hugepages.mount           static  

  4. dev-mqueue.mount              static  

  5. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.mount static  

  6. sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount static  

  7. sys-kernel-config.mount       static  

  8. sys-kernel-debug.mount        static  

  9. tmp.mount                     disabled

18. 挂载、卸载、重新挂载、重载系统挂载点并检查系统中挂载点状态

  1. # systemctl start tmp.mount

  2. # systemctl stop tmp.mount

  3. # systemctl restart tmp.mount

  4. # systemctl reload tmp.mount

  5. # systemctl status tmp.mount


  6. tmp.mount - Temporary Directory

  7.   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/tmp.mount; disabled)

  8.   Active: active (mounted) since Tue 2015-04-28 17:46:06 IST; 2min 48s ago

  9.    Where: /tmp

  10.     What: tmpfs

  11.     Docs: man:hier(7)


  12. http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/APIFileSystems


  13.  Process: 3908 ExecMount=/bin/mount tmpfs /tmp -t tmpfs -o mode=1777,strictatime (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)


  14. Apr 28 17:46:06 tecmint systemd[1]: Mounting Temporary Directory...

  15. Apr 28 17:46:06 tecmint systemd[1]: tmp.mount: Directory /tmp to mount over is not empty, mounting anyway.

  16. Apr 28 17:46:06 tecmint systemd[1]: Mounted Temporary Directory.

19. 在启动时激活、启用或禁用挂载点(系统启动时自动挂载)

# systemctl is-active tmp.mount# systemctl enable tmp.mount# systemctl disable  tmp.mount

20. 在Linux中屏蔽(让它不能启用)或可见挂载点

  1. # systemctl mask tmp.mount


  2. ln -s '/dev/null' '/etc/systemd/system/tmp.mount'


  3. # systemctl unmask tmp.mount


  4. rm '/etc/systemd/system/tmp.mount'

使用Systemctl控制并管理套接口

21. 列出所有可用系统套接口

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files --type=socket


  2. UNIT FILE                    STATE  

  3. dbus.socket                  static  

  4. dm-event.socket              enabled

  5. lvm2-lvmetad.socket          enabled

  6. rsyncd.socket                disabled

  7. sshd.socket                  disabled

  8. syslog.socket                static  

  9. systemd-initctl.socket       static  

  10. systemd-journald.socket      static  

  11. systemd-shutdownd.socket     static  

  12. systemd-udevd-control.socket static  

  13. systemd-udevd-kernel.socket  static  


  14. 11 unit files listed.

22. 在Linux中启动、重启、停止、重载套接口并检查其状态

  1. # systemctl start cups.socket

  2. # systemctl restart cups.socket

  3. # systemctl stop cups.socket

  4. # systemctl reload cups.socket

  5. # systemctl status cups.socket


  6. cups.socket - CUPS Printing Service Sockets

  7.   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/cups.socket; enabled)

  8.   Active: active (listening) since Tue 2015-04-28 18:10:59 IST; 8s ago

  9.   Listen: /var/run/cups/cups.sock (Stream)


  10. Apr 28 18:10:59 tecmint systemd[1]: Starting CUPS Printing Service Sockets.

  11. Apr 28 18:10:59 tecmint systemd[1]: Listening on CUPS Printing Service Sockets.

23. 在启动时激活套接口,并启用或禁用它(系统启动时自启动)

# systemctl is-active cups.socket# systemctl enable cups.socket# systemctl disable cups.socket

24. 屏蔽(使它不能启动)或显示套接口

  1. # systemctl mask cups.socket

  2. ln -s '/dev/null' '/etc/systemd/system/cups.socket'


  3. # systemctl unmask cups.socket

  4. rm '/etc/systemd/system/cups.socket'

服务的CPU利用率(分配额)

25. 获取当前某个服务的CPU分配额(如httpd)

  1. # systemctl show -p CPUShares httpd.service


  2. CPUShares=1024

注意:各个服务的默认CPU分配份额=1024,你可以增加/减少某个进程的CPU分配份额。

26. 将某个服务(httpd.service)的CPU分配份额限制为2000 CPUShares/

  1. # systemctl set-property httpd.service CPUShares=2000

  2. # systemctl show -p CPUShares httpd.service


  3. CPUShares=2000

注意:当你为某个服务设置CPUShares,会自动创建一个以服务名命名的目录(如 httpd.service),里面包含了一个名为90-CPUShares.conf的文件,该文件含有CPUShare限制信息,你可以通过以下方式查看该文件:

  1. # vi /etc/systemd/system/httpd.service.d/90-CPUShares.conf


  2. [Service]

  3. CPUShares=2000        

27. 检查某个服务的所有配置细节

  1. # systemctl show httpd


  2. Id=httpd.service

  3. Names=httpd.service

  4. Requires=basic.target

  5. Wants=system.slice

  6. WantedBy=multi-user.target

  7. Conflicts=shutdown.target

  8. Before=shutdown.target multi-user.target

  9. After=network.target remote-fs.target nss-lookup.target systemd-journald.socket basic.target system.slice

  10. Description=The Apache HTTP Server

  11. LoadState=loaded

  12. ActiveState=active

  13. SubState=running

  14. FragmentPath=/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service

  15. ....

28. 分析某个服务(httpd)的关键链

  1. # systemd-analyze critical-chain httpd.service


  2. The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.

  3. The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character.


  4. httpd.service +142ms

  5. └─network.target @11.168s

  6.  └─network.service @9.456s +1.712s

  7.    └─NetworkManager.service @8.858s +596ms

  8.      └─firewalld.service @4.931s +3.926s

  9.        └─basic.target @4.916s

  10.          └─sockets.target @4.916s

  11.            └─dbus.socket @4.916s

  12.              └─sysinit.target @4.905s

  13.                └─systemd-update-utmp.service @4.864s +39ms

  14.                  └─auditd.service @4.563s +301ms

  15.                    └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service @4.485s +69ms

  16.                      └─rhel-import-state.service @4.342s +142ms

  17.                        └─local-fs.target @4.324s

  18.                          └─boot.mount @4.286s +31ms

  19.                            └─systemd-fsck@dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d196080964.service @4.092s +149ms

  20.                              └─dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d196080964.device @4.092s

29. 获取某个服务(httpd)的依赖性列表

  1. # systemctl list-dependencies httpd.service


  2. httpd.service

  3. ├─system.slice

  4. └─basic.target

  5.  ├─firewalld.service

  6.  ├─microcode.service

  7.  ├─rhel-autorelabel-mark.service

  8.  ├─rhel-autorelabel.service

  9.  ├─rhel-configure.service

  10.  ├─rhel-dmesg.service

  11.  ├─rhel-loadmodules.service

  12.  ├─paths.target

  13.  ├─slices.target

  14.   ├─-.slice

  15.   └─system.slice

  16.  ├─sockets.target

  17.   ├─dbus.socket

  18. ....

30. 按等级列出控制组

  1. # systemd-cgls


  2. ├─1 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --switched-root --system --deserialize 23

  3. ├─user.slice

  4. └─user-0.slice

  5.   └─session-1.scope

  6.     ├─2498 sshd: root@pts/0    

  7.     ├─2500 -bash

  8.     ├─4521 systemd-cgls

  9.     └─4522 systemd-cgls

  10. └─system.slice

  11.  ├─httpd.service

  12.   ├─4440 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  13.   ├─4442 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  14.   ├─4443 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  15.   ├─4444 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  16.   ├─4445 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  17.   └─4446 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

  18.  ├─polkit.service

  19.   └─721 /usr/lib/polkit-1/polkitd --no-debug

  20. ....

31. 按CPU、内存、输入和输出列出控制组

  1. # systemd-cgtop


  2. Path                                                              Tasks   %CPU   Memory  Input/s Output/s


  3. /                                                                    83    1.0   437.8M        -        -

  4. /system.slice                                                         -    0.1        -        -        -

  5. /system.slice/mariadb.service                                         2    0.1        -        -        -

  6. /system.slice/tuned.service                                           1    0.0        -        -        -

  7. /system.slice/httpd.service                                           6    0.0        -        -        -

  8. /system.slice/NetworkManager.service                                  1      -        -        -        -

  9. /system.slice/atop.service                                            1      -        -        -        -

  10. /system.slice/atopacct.service                                        1      -        -        -        -

  11. /system.slice/auditd.service                                          1      -        -        -        -

  12. /system.slice/crond.service                                           1      -        -        -        -

  13. /system.slice/dbus.service                                            1      -        -        -        -

  14. /system.slice/firewalld.service                                       1      -        -        -        -

  15. /system.slice/lvm2-lvmetad.service                                    1      -        -        -        -

  16. /system.slice/polkit.service                                          1      -        -        -        -

  17. /system.slice/postfix.service                                         3      -        -        -        -

  18. /system.slice/rsyslog.service                                         1      -        -        -        -

  19. /system.slice/system-getty.slice/getty@tty1.service                   1      -        -        -        -

  20. /system.slice/systemd-journald.service                                1      -        -        -        -

  21. /system.slice/systemd-logind.service                                  1      -        -        -        -

  22. /system.slice/systemd-udevd.service                                   1      -        -        -        -

  23. /system.slice/webmin.service                                          1      -        -        -        -

  24. /user.slice/user-0.slice/session-1.scope                              3      -        -        -        -

控制系统运行等级

32. 启动系统救援模式

  1. # systemctl rescue


  2. Broadcast message from root@tecmint on pts/0 (Wed 2015-04-29 11:31:18 IST):


  3. The system is going down to rescue mode NOW!

33. 进入紧急模式

  1. # systemctl emergency


  2. Welcome to emergency mode! After logging in, type "journalctl -xb" to view

  3. system logs, "systemctl reboot" to reboot, "systemctl default" to try again

  4. to boot into default mode.

34. 列出当前使用的运行等级

  1. # systemctl get-default


  2. multi-user.target

35. 启动运行等级5,即图形模式

# systemctl isolate runlevel5.target或# systemctl isolate graphical.target

36. 启动运行等级3,即多用户模式(命令行)

# systemctl isolate runlevel3.target或# systemctl isolate multiuser.target

36. 设置多用户模式或图形模式为默认运行等级

  1. # systemctl set-default runlevel3.target


  2. # systemctl set-default runlevel5.target

37. 重启、停止、挂起、休眠系统或使系统进入混合睡眠

  1. # systemctl reboot


  2. # systemctl halt


  3. # systemctl suspend


  4. # systemctl hibernate


  5. # systemctl hybrid-sleep

对于不知运行等级为何物的人,说明如下。

  • Runlevel 0 : 关闭系统

  • Runlevel 1 : 救援?维护模式

  • Runlevel 3 : 多用户,无图形系统

  • Runlevel 4 : 多用户,无图形系统

  • Runlevel 5 : 多用户,图形化系统

  • Runlevel 6 : 关闭并重启机器

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